Essential trace elements and immunity
Department of Pediatrics' Teikyo University School of Medicine.
Nippon Rinsho, 54(1):46-51 1996 Jan
The effects of zinc' iron' copper and selenium on the immune
reviewed. Among the essential trace elements in humans' zinc'
copper and selenium are essential for the integrity and optimum
function of the immunity. Although each element has different
in the immune system' the deficiencies in each of these elements
causes the dysfunction of cell-mediated immunity. Deficiencies
significantly effect the B cell function. These immunological
abnormalities can be improved by supplementation of deficient
However' excess supplementation also impairs the immune system.
Therefore' a proper balance of these elements is essential for
maintenance of immunocompetence.
Effect of micronutrient supplementation on infection in
institutionalized elderly subJects: a controlled trial.
Girodon F; Lombard M; Galan P; Brunet-Lecomte P; Monget AL; Arnaud
Preziosi P; Hercberg S
Institut Scientifique et Technique de la Nutrition et de
l`Alimentation' Paris' France.
Ann Nutr Metab, 41(2):98-107 1997
To determine the impact of a trace element and vitamin supplementation
on infectious morbidity' a double-blind controlled trial was
on 81 elderly subJects in a geriatric center during a 2-year
SubJects were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups'
received daily: placebo; trace elements/zinc 20 mg; selenium
micrograms); vitamins (vitamin C 120 mg; beta-carotene 6 mg;
alpha-tocopherol 15 mg); or a combination of trace elements and
vitamins at equal doses. (1) Before supplementation' low serum
in vitamin C' folate' zinc and selenium were observed in more
thirds of the patients. (2) After 6 months of supplementation'
significant increase in vitamin and trace element serum levels
obtained in the corresponding treatment groups: a plateau was
observed for the whole study. (3) SubJects who received trace
(zinc and selenium) alone or associated with vitamins had significantly
less infectious events during the 2 years of supplementation.
results indicate that supplementation with low doses of vitamins
trace elements is able to rapidly correct corresponding deficiencies
the institutionalized elderly. Moreover' zinc and selenium reduced
Dietary intake and nutritional status of athletic and nonathletic
children in early puberty.
Rankinen T; Fogelholm M; KuJala U; Rauramaa R; Uusitupa M
Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine' Finland.
Int J Sport Nutr, 5(2):136-50 1995 Jun
Dietary intakes' trace element status' and anthropometric measures
studied in 12- to 13-year-old boys (n = 49) playing ice hockey
in 11- to 12-year-old girls who were gymnasts' figure skaters'
runners (AG; n = 43). Thirty-five boys (CB) and 53 girls (CG)
involved in supervised sports were controls. After adJustment
sexual maturation' ABs had larger upper arm muscle circumference
CBs. The sum of four skinfolds was smaller in AGs than in CGs.
intake of energy and all micronutrients examined was higher in
in CBs. Micronutrient intakes were not different between AGs
Compared to CBs' serum ferritin and copper concentrations were
but serum zinc concentration was higher in ABs. No differences
element status were found between AGs and CGs. Blood investigations
not indicate inadequate trace element status in any of the groups
Micronutrient status in elderly people. Geriatrie/Min. Vit. Aux
Monget AL; Galan P; Preziosi P; Keller H; Bourgeois C; Arnaud
A; Hercberg S
Institut Scientifique et Technique de la Nutrition et de l`
Alimentation' CNAM' Paris' France.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 66(1):71-6 1996
A biochemical assessment of the vitamin and trace element status
institutionalized elderly men and women' 66-103 years old (average
+/- 7.6 y)' was conducted in 26 nursing homes in different areas
France. Serum concentrations of beta- and alpha-carotene'
beta-cryptoxanthin' lycopene' retinol' alpha- and gamma-tocopherol'
vitamin C' zinc and selenium were measured. A difference in biochemical
markers according to sex was observed for vitamins E and C: elderly
women had higher levels of alpha-tocopherol and vitamin C than
men. When expressed as a ratio of cholesterol' the difference
sexes for alpha-tocopherol disappeared. Simple regression analysis
showed that most vitamins and trace elements were significantly
negatively correlated with age. A high prevalence of low concentrations
of vitamin C' zinc and selenium was revealed.
Evaluation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in
malnourished Moroccan children
Squali Houssaini FZ; Arnaud J; Richard MJ; Renversez JC; Favier
Laboratoire de Biochimie' Facult]e des Sciences Dhar Mehraz'
Universite Sidi Med Ben Abdellah' F`es' Maroc.
Ann Nutr Metab, 41(3):149-59 1997
In Morocco' malnutrition is a public health problem. Indeed'
25% of 6-
to 60-month-old children suffer from malnutrition. Imbalance
antioxidant protection and prooxidant stress has been reported
accurately predict the survival of malnourished children. Therefore'
determined blood antioxidant vitamins (retinol' alpha-tocopherol
carotenoids)' trace elements (serum zinc' copper and selenium)
enzymes (erythrocyte Se glutathione peroxydase and Cu-Zn superoxide
dismutase) as well as blood oxidative stress index [ferritine'
thiobarbituric-acid reactants (TBARS) in 21 children suffering
severe malnutrition' 15 children suffering from mild malnutrition
in 20 healthy control children. Selenium' retionol' alpha-tocopherol
and carotenoids were significantly decreased in malnourished
These decreases were related to the severity of malnutrition.
the percentage of vitamin and trace element concentrations under
deficient cutoff were high in malnourished children. On the contrary'
TBARS' ferritin and prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index
(PINI) were significantly increased in malnourished children.
for TBARS' these increases were related to the severity of
malnutrition. On the other hand' blood retional' alpha-tocopherol'
beta-carotene and selenium were negatively related to alpha 1-acid
glycoprotein. Blood beta-cryptoxanthin' lycopene' carotenes and
were positively related to weight. Finally' blood lutein/zeaxanthin
copper were positively related to height. These results confirm
imbalance between antioxidant protective factors and oxidative
index in malnourished children. Moreover' the decrease in antioxidant
protective factors is related to inflammation or stature. These
suggest that antioxidant micronutrient supplementation of the
diet could be required in the nutritional rehabilitation of
Effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on immune
in healthy elderly.
Pike J; Chandra RK
Department of Pediatrics' Memorial University of Newfoundland'
Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 65(2):117-21 1995
Aging is associated with a progressive decline in the immune
a greater susceptibility to infection. This double-blind'
placebo-controlled study' examined the effect of a vitamin and
element supplement on immune responses of healthy' noninstitutionalized
elderly subJects. Forty-seven subJects aged 61-79 years were
assigned to receive placebo or micronutrient supplementation
year. Thirty-five individuals completed the one-year study. Immune
function was assessed before and after the period of supplementation.
Cell-mediated immune function assessed by the number of T cells
subsets remained constant in the supplemented group and there
significant increase in CD57 natural killer cells. In contrast'
significant decrease in T cells' CD4 cells' and CD4: CD8 ratio
noted in the placebo group. Supplementation with micronutrients
play a crucial role in the maintenance of normal immune function
Time course effects of vanadium supplement on cytosolic reduced
glutathione level and glutathione S-transferase activity.
Bishayee A; Chatterjee M
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University,
Biol Trace Elem Res, 48(3):275-85 1995 Jun
The influence of vanadium, an important dietary micronutrient,
evaluated on the cytosolic reduced glutathione (GSH) content
glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in several rat target
Supplementation of drinking water with vanadium at the level
of 0.2 or
0.5 ppm for 4, 8, or 12 wk was found to increase the GSH level
concomitant elevation in GST activity in the liver followed by
intestine mucosa, large intestine mucosa, and kidney. The results
almost dose-dependent and mostly pronounced with 0.5 ppm vanadium
12 wk of its continuous supplementation. Neither the GSH level
activity was significantly altered in forestomach and lung following
vanadium supplementation throughout the study. The levels of
that were found to increase the content of GSH and activity of
the liver, intestine, and kidney did not exert any toxic manifestation
as evidenced from water and food consumption as well as the growth
responses of the experimental animals. Moreover, these doses
vanadium did not impair either hepatic or renal functions as
not alter the serum activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
(GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), sorbitol dehydrogenase
(SDH), as well as serum urea and creatinine level. All these
clearly indicate that vanadium under the doses employed in our
has a significant inducing role on GSH content with a concurrent
elevation in GST activity in the liver and specific extrahepatic
tissues without any apparent sign of cytotoxicity. This attribute
vanadium may have a greater importance in terms of biotransformation
and detoxification of xenobiotics, including carcinogens. In
since the ability to afford an increment in the endogenous GSH-GST
by anticarcinogenic natural substances has been found to correlate
their activity to inhibit neoplastic transformation, the trace
vanadium may be considered as a novel anticancer agent.
Influence of nicotine on tissue trace element concentrations
Dubick MA; Keen CL
Division of Military Trauma Research, Letterman Army Institute
Research, Presidio of San Francisco, CA 94129, USA.
Biol Trace Elem Res, 31(2):97-109 1991 Nov
Both altered trace element metabolism and cigarette smoking have
proposed to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD).
is important to identify the mechanisms by which cigarette smoke
trace element metabolism. In the present study, serum trace element
concentrations were measured in 19 smokers and 13 nonsmokers.
parallel studies, data from rats treated with 50 mg of nicotine
21-d period tested the hypothesis that nicotine induced altered
element metabolism observed in smokers. Serum Cu and Zn concentrations
were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. Serum
concentrations in rats were comparable to those observed in heavy
smokers, but serum trace element concentrations were not significantly
altered by nicotine treatment. Tissue trace element concentrations
also not markedly affected by nicotine; however, trace element
in liver, kidney, lung, and brain were significantly altered
nicotine treatment. In addition, nicotine-treatment resulted
significantly lower liver glutathione concentrations and higher
superoxide dismutase activity than in controls. These data show
50-mg infusion of nicotine over 21 d does not produce in rats
trace element abnormalities observed in cigarette smokers. However,
nicotine did affect the trace element relationships between tissues
well as components of the free radical defense system.
Effect of 6 month supplementation with different combinations
association of antioxidant nutrients on biochemical parameters
markers of the antioxidant defence system in the elderly. The
Monget AL; Richard MJ; Cournot MP; Arnaud J; Galan P; Preziosi
Herbeth B; Favier A; Hercberg S
Institut Scientifique et Technique de la Nutrition et de l`
Alimentation' CNAM' Paris' France.
Eur J Clin Nutr, 50(7):443-9 1996 Jul
OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of supplementation with an association
of small physiological amounts of antioxidant nutrients upon
biochemical parameters and indicators of oxidative stress and
antioxidant enzymes. DESIGN: The study included a double-blind
placebo-controlled design. SETTING: Nursing homes in different
France. SUBJECTS: 575 elderly long term hospitalized subJects
65-103 years. INTERVENTION: Four groups were compared. They received
daily: (V) vitamins (vitamin E' 15 mg and vitamin C' 120 mg)
beta-carotene' 6 mg; (T) trace elements (zinc' 20 mg' selenium'
micrograms); (VT) vitamins associated with trace elements; or
placebo. Biological markers of vitamin and trace element status'
free radical parameters were measured initially and after 6 months
supplementation. RESULTS: An analysis of variance indicated a
significant effect of vitamin supplementation on serum
alpha-tocopherol' beta-carotene and vitamin C' a significant
trace element supplementation on serum zinc and both a significant
trace element and a vitamin-trace element interaction on serum
selenium. We observed significant effects of both trace element
vitamin supplementation on GPx activity (P < 0.01)' an effect
vitamin supplementation on SOD activity (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:
results indicate that short-term supplementation with moderate
antioxidant vitamins and trace elements in elderly subJects clearly
improves both non-enzymatic (alpha-tocopherol' beta-carotene'
C) levels and enzymatic antioxidant (GPx and SOD) activity.
Review of trace elements in blood' serum and urine for the Czech
Slovak populations and critical evaluation of their possible
Ku cera J; Bencko V; Sabbioni E; Van der Venne MT
Czech Ecological Institute' NAA Laboratory' Re z near Prague.
Sci Total Environ, 166():211-34 1995 Apr 21
The availability of accurate trace element reference values in
tissues represents an important indicator to the health status
general population and occupational groups exposed to trace elements.
The EURO TERVIHT proJect (Trace Element Reference Values in Human
Tissues) aims to establish and compare trace element reference
in tissues from inhabitants of the European countries as baseline
values for clinical/toxicological assessment studies. In this
one of the first steps considered is the critical evaluation
the art) of existing literature on trace element reference values
blood' serum and urine in the general population of each European
country. This paper reviews the Czech and Slovak situation by
studies carried out in these countries for Al' As' Cd' Co' Cr'
Mn' Hg' Ni' Pb' Rb' Sc' Se' V and Zn in blood' serum and urine.
studies show that most of the data available do not meet criteria
designed recently for deriving reference intervals' especially
regarding the number of subJects' the age of population sample
as well as the use of appropriate sampling techniques and quality
assurance procedures. Elements which present the highest potential
for health in Czech and Slovak populations and for which reference
values should be urgently established are: Cd' Hg' Pb (maJor
pollutants); As' Cr' Ni (carcinogenic metals); Al' F' Mn' Tl'
(released into the environment by coal combustion and other industrial
activities); Pt (increasing use of Pt catalyst in petrol-driven
automobiles); essential trace elements such as I' Se and Zn for
deficiency in Czech and Slovak populations was detected or is
Effects of trace element and/or vitamin supplementation on vitamin
mineral status, free radical metabolism and immunological markers
elderly long term-hospitalized subjects. Geriatric Network MIN.
Galan P; Preziosi P; Monget AL; Richard MJ; Arnaud J; Lesourd
Girodon F; Alferez MJ; Bourgeois C; Keller H; Favier A; Hercberg
Institut Scientifique et Technique de la Nutrition et de
l'Alimentation, CNAM, Paris, France.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 67(6):450-60 1997
A randomized double-blind trial was performed in order to assess
efficacity of differing combinations of antioxidant nutrients
biochemical parameters of vitamin and trace element status,
immunological parameters and free radical metabolism in elderly
term hospitalized subjects. A total of 756 institutionalized
subjects were recruited in 26 nursing homes in different areas
France. Four groups were constituted, receiving daily, for 1
either vitamins (beta-carotene, 6 mg; vitamin C, 120 mg; and
15 mg), trace elements (zinc, 20 mg and selenium, 100 micrograms),
trace elements associated with vitamins, or a placebo. Biochemical
indicators of trace elements and vitamin status and free radical
parameters were measured before and after 6 months and 1 year
supplementation. Some immunological markers were investigated
and after 6 months of supplementation on a subsample of 134 subjects.
Mean plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, vitamin
alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and copper increased significantly
6 months of supplementation in groups receiving vitamins alone
associated with trace elements. Serum selenium concentrations
significantly increased at 6 months of supplementation, and serum
only after one year in the trace element groups. Serum lycopene
were significantly decreased by trace element supplementation.
significant increase in Se-glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels
observed in groups receiving trace elements alone or associated
vitamins. No effect was noted on superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity
TBARs production. No effect of supplementation was found for
lymphocyte proliferative responses or most lymphocyte subsets,
for a significantly lower percentage of CD2 subsets observed
receiving mineral supplementation either alone or associated
vitamins. A significant difference in CD19 subsets was found
receiving trace elements. Mean IL-1 production was significantly
after 6 months of supplementation in the vitamin groups.
Reference values for the trace elements copper' manganese' selenium'
and zinc in the serum/plasma of children' adolescents' and adults.
R ukgauer M; Klein J; Kruse-Jarres JD
Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine'
Katharinenhospital' Stuttgart' Germany.
J Trace Elem Med Biol, 11(2):92-8 1997 Jun
Up to now few plasma or serum reference or serum reference values
been available for the assessment of the essential trace element
status in different age groups covering the whole range of life
In the present investigation' the concentrations of copper' manganese'
selenium' and zinc were determined in the serum of 137 healthy
and in the plasma of 68 blood-donors. The age distribution within
groups ranged from 1 month to 18 years and from 22 to 75 years.
determinations were carried out directly by means of electrothermal
atomic absorption spectrophotometry with Zeeman background
compensation. The adult plasma reference values (mean +/- 2 SD)
1.65 +/- 8.6 mumol/1 for copper' 14.3 +/- 11.4 nmol/1 for manganese'
0.80 +/- 0.36 mumol/1 for selenium' and 16.6 +/- mumol/1 for
correlation between concentration of elements and sex could be
established. In the child and adolescent group' the manganese
exhibited an age-dependent linear decrease (54% of the starting
slope 0.92' r = 0.4' p < 0.001)' the copper and the selenium
concentrations' respectively' exhibited an exponential increase
r = 0.59 and 174%' r = 0.61)' with the highest value in the age
of 6 to 10 years. Reference ranges are established for 9 different
groups. The results reflect the known physiological data on the
element content in the tissue of children and their diet. The
study is an important pre-requisite for diagnosis and therapy
element deficiencies in all age groups.
Detecting subclinical deficiency of essential trace elements
children with special reference to zinc and selenium.
Salmenper a L
Children`s Hospital' University of Helsinki' Finland.
Clin Biochem, 30(2):115-20 1997 Mar
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews situations in which we should
to the risk of trace element deficiencies' and the difficulties
assessing trace element status' as illustrated by states of potential
subclinical deficiency of zinc and selenium in infants. CONCLUSION:
Deficiency states of many trace elements have been documented
infants' and there is probably an underdiagnosed group of infants
subclinical deficiency' from which however the great maJority
protected by effective regulatory systems. Specific' sensitive'
reliable methods are needed for the detection of trace element
Trace elements: mechanistic aspects of anticarcinogenic action
Department of Environmental Health Sciences' Tohoku University
Nippon Rinsho, 54(1):52-8 1996 Jan
Trace elements play important roles and are increasingly recognized
versatile anticarcinogenic agents. Several biologic mechanisms
been proposed to explain how trace elements could reduce the
of a number of different cancers. The proposed mechanisms involve
antioxidant potential of trace element dependent enzyme system'
induction of metallothionein' effects on immune response and
system' alterations of carcinogen metabolism' and apoptosis of
initiated cells. However' epidemiologic studies have failed to
the hypothesis that enhanced trace element status reduces the
cancer. Furthermore' several animal and in vitro studies have
carcinogenic potentials of trace elements. A few chemoprevention
with trace elements have now been conducted.
A trace element preparation containing zinc increases the production
interleukin-6 in human monocytes and glial cells.
Falus A; B]eres J Jr
Department of Biology' Semmelweis Medical University' Budapest'
Biol Trace Elem Res, 51(3):293-301 1996 Mar
The in vitro effects of a trace element preparation (b]eres Drops
BDP) on the biosynthesis of inflammatory cytokines interleukin
IL-1' and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were studied
peripheral monocytes. The production of IL-6 was studied in a
glioblastoma cell line' SKMG-4' as well. The trace element preparation
BDP significantly stimulated both the constitutive and the endotoxin
IL-1 induced IL-6 production in monocytes or in glial cells'
respectively' but revealed no or only modest effect on IL-1 and
TNF-alpha production of monocytes. Moreover' BDP was able to
inhibitory effect of a synthetic corticosteroid' dexamethasone
biosynthesis of IL-6. The positive effect of the trace element
preparation on the IL-6 production of monocytes from rheumatoid
arthritis (RA) patients is comparable' to that of on the monocytes
healthy individuals' and similarly to healthy individuals was
negligible on the IL-1 and TNF-alpha production. The detailed
of the composition of the preparation suggested' that the maJor
component in the stimulation of IL-6 production is Zn' but for
complete effect other trace elements are also required.