CFS Nutrition Logo   Taurine-1

 


Glutathione Molecule
Return to:
  Science Index

- Nutrients
- Toxins & Conditions
Return to:
  Main Index
- Health Information
- Editorial
- Products
Place an Order:
  
Secure Server
CFS Nutrition Products:
   
Nutrition Programs

   Organ Cleansers
   Immune Stimulants
   Bottled Nutrients
   Probiotic Formulas
   Nutrition Books
   Water Filters
   Videos

Food Supplements:

Nutrition Books:
click here

Water Filters:

 Science Index

 Taurine

Back

Next

Title
Tolerance and bactericidal action of N-chlorotaurine in a urinary tract infection by an omniresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Author
Nagl M; Pfausler B; Schmutzhard E; Fille M; Gottardi W
Source
Zentralbl Bakteriol, 1998 Oct, 288:2, 217-23
Abstract
N-chlorotaurine, a weak antimicrobial oxidant produced by stimulated human leukocytes, was used to treat cystitis caused by an omniresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A 21-year-old male patient was treated by repeated daily lavages of the urinary bladder with an aques solution of 1% N-chlorotaurine for one month. N-chlorotaurine was well tolerated; no local or systemic side effects could be detected. Despite killing of > 10(6) cfu/ml of bacteria within ten minutes in vitro and in vivo, it was not possible to eradicate the Pseudomonas infection obviously caused by inflammation of the upper urinary tract and perpetuated by intravesical concrements. Nevertheless, in actually localized infection, treatment with N-chlorotaurine might be successful because of its sufficient bactericidal action.

Title
Dietary supplementation with the inhibitory amino acid taurine suppresses autotomy in HA rats.
Author
Belfer I; Davidson E; Ratner A; Beery E; Shir Y; Seltzer Z
Source Neuroreport, 1998 Sep, 9:13, 3103-7
Abstract
Taurine is an inhibitory amino acid in the CNS. When supplied to rats it produces analgesia in some acute pain tests. Here we examined the effect of taurine supplementation on sensitivity to pain in intact rats, and whether perioperative dietary supplementation with taurine in rats would suppress autotomy, a behavior produced by peripheral neurectomy and related to neuropathic pain. Thermal pain sensitivity of intact rats consuming 1% taurine in the drinking solution for 2 weeks was not significantly different from that of control rats. Autotomy levels, determined in rats consuming taurine pre-, post- or perioperatively were significantly lower than in matching control groups. We conclude that taurine plays an important role in the autotomy model, presumably by protecting inhibitory neurons in the CNS against an excitotoxic damage triggered by injury discharge and ectopic input from the severed nerves.

Title
Effects of dietary taurine supplementation or deprivation in aged male Fischer 344 rats.
Author
Dawson R Jr; Liu S; Eppler B; Patterson T
Source
Mech Ageing Dev, 1999 Feb, 107:1, 73-91
Abstract
Taurine is a sulfur amino acid that is present in high concentration in mammalian tissues and previously has been reported to decline in a number of tissues with advancing age. The aims of the present study were to examine: (1) the effects of dietary taurine supplementation; (2) the effects of taurine-free diets; (3) the ability of aged rats to conserve urinary taurine; and (4) the consequences of these dietary manipulations on some biochemical parameters. Male F344 rats (n = 30/group) 18 months of age were placed on control diets, diets supplemented with 1.5% taurine in the drinking water, or a taurine-free diet for 10 months. An adult control group (12 months old at the end of the study) on normal diets was included for comparison purposes. Significant (P < 0.05) age-related declines in taurine content were observed in the spleen, kidney, eye, cerebellum and serum. Taurine supplementation corrected these deficits in tissue content in aged rats and in many cases increased taurine content above that of adult controls. Urinary excretion of taurine was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in aged rats indicating an increased need to conserve taurine. Taurine-deficient diets did not further exacerbate the age-related decline in tissue taurine content, suggesting biosynthetic adaptations to the lack of dietary taurine. Dietary taurine supplementation blunted age-related declines in serum IGF-1 and increases in serum creatinine and blood urinary nitrogen (BUN). These studies suggest that advanced aging results in a taurine-deficient state that can be corrected by dietary supplementation.

Title
Changes in urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two thirds hepatectomy in the rat.
Author
Brand HS; Jörning GG; Chamuleau RA
Source
Amino Acids, 1998, 15:4, 373-83
Abstract
This study followed the time course of urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in rats. The excretion of both taurine and hypotaurine was elevated during 18 h following the hepatectomy, with maximal excretion during the first 6 h. Twelve and 24 h after partial hepatectomy, the hepatic hypotaurine concentration was increased but liver taurine did not differ significantly from controls. No changes were observed in hypotaurine and taurine concentrations of heart, kidney, lung, muscle tissue and spleen. We postulate that partial hepatectomy induces a rapid increase of hepatic (hypo)taurine synthesis from precursor amino acids. The increased (hypo)taurine concentrations spill over into urine

Title
Hypotaurine disproportionation reaction: identification of products.
Author
Duprè S; Spirito A; Pinnen F; Sugahara K; Kodama H
Source
Amino Acids, 1998, 15:4, 363-72
Abstract
Hypotaurine, concentrated under reduced pressure in HCl solution, partially (30-40%) degrades into taurine (about 30%), 2-aminoethyl-2-aminoethanethiolsulfonate (about 10%) and ethanolamine. The degradation products were identified using LC/APCI-MS, NMR, amino acid analysis and various chromatographies. The identities were confirmed by comparing the HPLS, MS and NMR characteristics of authentic compounds. One of the degradation processes during concentration of HCl solution of hypotaurine is therefore a disproportionation reaction which can interfere with the experimental results, when studying hypotaurine in biological systems.

Title
Taurine indirectly increases [Ca]i by inducing Ca2+ influx through the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger.
Author
Bkaily G; Jaalouk D; Sader S; Shbaklo H; Pothier P; Jacques D; D'Orléans-Juste P; Cragoe EJ Jr; Bose R
Source
Mol Cell Biochem, 1998 Nov, 188:1-2, 187-97
Abstract
Recent studies in heart cells have shown taurine to induce a sustained increase of both intracellular Ca2+ and Na+. These results led us to believe that the increase in Na+ by taurine could be due to Na+ entry through the taurine-Na+ cotransporter which in turn favours transarcolemmal Ca2+ influx through Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange. Therefore, we investigated the effect of beta-alanine, a blocker of the taurine-Na+ cotransporter and low concentrations of CBDMB (a pyrazine derivative, 5-(N-4chlorobenzyl)-2',4'-dimethylbenzamil), a Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger blocker on taurine-induced [Ca]i increase in embryonic chick heart cells. Using Fura-2 Ca2+ imaging and Fluo-3Ca2+ confocal microscopy techniques, taurine (20 mM) as expected, induced a sustained increase in [Ca]i at both the cytosolic and the nuclear levels. Preexposure to 500 microM of the blocker of the taurine-Na+ cotransporter, beta-alanine, prevented the amino acid-induced increase of total [Ca]i. On the other hand, application of beta-alanine did not reverse the action of taurine on total [Ca]i. However, low concentrations of the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger blocker, CBDMB, reversed the taurine-induced sustained increase of cytosolic and nuclear free calcium (in presence or absence of beta-alanine). Thus, the effect of taurine on [Ca]i in heart cells appears to be due to Na+ entry through the taurine-Na+ cotransporter which in turn favours transarcolemmal Ca2+ influx through the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger.

Title
Immunohistochemical localization of taurine in various tissues of the mouse.
Author
Terauchi A; Nakazaw A; Johkura K; Yan L; Usuda N
Source
Amino Acids, 1998, 15:1-2, 151-60
Abstract
The localization of taurine was investigated in several tissues of the mouse. Immunohistochemical methods using a polyclonal antibody for taurine derived from rabbits was used in these studies. This method was used since it is a simple procedure and the results are clear and reliable. Tissues were fixed with paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and treated in a microwave oven before using an avidin-biotin-complex method (ABC method). Control staining was accomplished by employing absorption staining using various amino acids: taurine, arginine, cysteine, hypotaurine and others. For purposes of comparison, radioautography (RAG) with 3H-taurine was performed to confirm the reliability of the immunohistochemical staining compared with the localization of the 3H-taurine incorporation in endothelial cells of the blood vessels of several tissues. In this investigation, immunoreactivity was broadly observed in many tissues: Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, glia cells of brain tissue, cardiac muscle cells, matrices of the bone, mucus granules of goblet cells of the intestines, and brown adipose cells of the fetus. Although the meaning of this widespread localization of taurine can not be explained completely, we surmise that taurine may have a different function in each of the tissues. In addition, taurine reactivity was observed in cell nuclei which was evidence of the presence of taurine in the nuclei.

Title
An updated view of the value of taurine in infant nutrition.
Author
Chesney RW; Helms RA; Christensen M; Budreau AM; Han X; Sturman JA
Source
Adv Pediatr, 1998, 45:, 179-200
Abstract
Not only is the gastrointestinal tract the largest immune organ in the body, but it also contains one of the most important and interesting immunologic compartments. Host protection against pathogens and injurious agents by the gastrointestinal tract is essential for an individual's survival. The intestinal mucosal immune system, which is linked with other mucosal surfaces and together represents the common mucosal immune system, prevents the passage of potentially harmful antigens and pathogens into the systemic circulation of the host. In a healthy host, antigens crossing the mucosal barrier in physiologic quantities evoke the appropriate immune response, which includes polymeric IgA antibody production to the antigen and systemic tolerance.

Title
Tolerance of N-chlorotaurine, an endogenous antimicrobial agent, in the rabbit and human eye--a phase I clinical study.
Author
Nagl M; Miller B; Daxecker F; Ulmer H; Gottardi W
Source
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther, 1998 Jun, 14:3, 283-90
Abstract
N-chlorotaurine (NCT), an essential weak oxidative N-chloro compound produced by stimulated human leukocytes, shows bactericidal, fungicidal, virucidal and vermicidal efficacy. A double-blind, randomized and placebo controlled study was done to evaluate the tolerance of the aqueous NCT solution by application to rabbit and human conjunctiva. In six rabbits treated with 1% and 3% NCT regimen for nine days no ocular and behaviour changes could be observed. In a pilot study with two volunteers, treatment with 2.8% NCT for five days caused a self-limited conjunctival injection of one subject, while 1% NCT was well tolerated. Subsequently, eight healthy volunteers participated in a phase I clinical study. One percent NCT was applied for five days and was well tolerated by all subjects except for minimal eye burning after the application. Because of these positive results, usage of the antimicrobial agent NCT in ophthalmology is suggested.

Title
Changes in plasma taurine levels after different endurance events.
Author
Ward RJ; Francaux M; Cuisinier C; Sturbois X; De Witte P
Source
Amino Acids, 1999, 16:1, 71-7
Abstract
The sulphonated amino acid taurine increased significantly in the plasma of trained athletes after three endurance exercises of different duration and intensity, a 90 min run on a treadmill at 75% of an individual's VO2 peak, a Marathon, 42.2 km and a 100 km run, by 19%, 77% and 36%, respectively. Such results indicated that the speed at which the exercise is performed, referred to as the intensity, rather than the duration of the exercise, correlated with the elevated taurine levels possibly indicating its release from muscle fibres. The plasma amino acid pool decreased significantly in relationship with the duration of the exercise, caused by their utilisation for glucogenesis. The possible
sources of the increased plasma taurine are discussed.

 

 Return to Main Page