Tolerance and bactericidal action of N-chlorotaurine in a urinary
tract infection by an omniresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Nagl M; Pfausler B; Schmutzhard E; Fille M; Gottardi W
Zentralbl Bakteriol, 1998 Oct, 288:2, 217-23
N-chlorotaurine, a weak antimicrobial oxidant produced by stimulated
human leukocytes, was used to treat cystitis caused by an omniresistant
Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A 21-year-old male patient was treated
by repeated daily lavages of the urinary bladder with an aques
solution of 1% N-chlorotaurine for one month. N-chlorotaurine
was well tolerated; no local or systemic side effects could be
detected. Despite killing of > 10(6) cfu/ml of bacteria within
ten minutes in vitro and in vivo, it was not possible to eradicate
the Pseudomonas infection obviously caused by inflammation of
the upper urinary tract and perpetuated by intravesical concrements.
Nevertheless, in actually localized infection, treatment with
N-chlorotaurine might be successful because of its sufficient
Dietary supplementation with the inhibitory amino acid taurine
suppresses autotomy in HA rats.
Belfer I; Davidson E; Ratner A; Beery E; Shir Y; Seltzer Z
Source Neuroreport, 1998 Sep, 9:13, 3103-7
Taurine is an inhibitory amino acid in the CNS. When supplied
to rats it produces analgesia in some acute pain tests. Here
we examined the effect of taurine supplementation on sensitivity
to pain in intact rats, and whether perioperative dietary supplementation
with taurine in rats would suppress autotomy, a behavior produced
by peripheral neurectomy and related to neuropathic pain. Thermal
pain sensitivity of intact rats consuming 1% taurine in the drinking
solution for 2 weeks was not significantly different from that
of control rats. Autotomy levels, determined in rats consuming
taurine pre-, post- or perioperatively were significantly lower
than in matching control groups. We conclude that taurine plays
an important role in the autotomy model, presumably by protecting
inhibitory neurons in the CNS against an excitotoxic damage triggered
by injury discharge and ectopic input from the severed nerves.
Effects of dietary taurine supplementation or deprivation in
aged male Fischer 344 rats.
Dawson R Jr; Liu S; Eppler B; Patterson T
Mech Ageing Dev, 1999 Feb, 107:1, 73-91
Taurine is a sulfur amino acid that is present in high concentration
in mammalian tissues and previously has been reported to decline
in a number of tissues with advancing age. The aims of the present
study were to examine: (1) the effects of dietary taurine supplementation;
(2) the effects of taurine-free diets; (3) the ability of aged
rats to conserve urinary taurine; and (4) the consequences of
these dietary manipulations on some biochemical parameters. Male
F344 rats (n = 30/group) 18 months of age were placed on control
diets, diets supplemented with 1.5% taurine in the drinking water,
or a taurine-free diet for 10 months. An adult control group
(12 months old at the end of the study) on normal diets was included
for comparison purposes. Significant (P < 0.05) age-related
declines in taurine content were observed in the spleen, kidney,
eye, cerebellum and serum. Taurine supplementation corrected
these deficits in tissue content in aged rats and in many cases
increased taurine content above that of adult controls. Urinary
excretion of taurine was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced
in aged rats indicating an increased need to conserve taurine.
Taurine-deficient diets did not further exacerbate the age-related
decline in tissue taurine content, suggesting biosynthetic adaptations
to the lack of dietary taurine. Dietary taurine supplementation
blunted age-related declines in serum IGF-1 and increases in
serum creatinine and blood urinary nitrogen (BUN). These studies
suggest that advanced aging results in a taurine-deficient state
that can be corrected by dietary supplementation.
Changes in urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two
thirds hepatectomy in the rat.
Brand HS; Jörning GG; Chamuleau RA
Amino Acids, 1998, 15:4, 373-83
This study followed the time course of urinary taurine and hypotaurine
excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in rats. The excretion
of both taurine and hypotaurine was elevated during 18 h following
the hepatectomy, with maximal excretion during the first 6 h.
Twelve and 24 h after partial hepatectomy, the hepatic hypotaurine
concentration was increased but liver taurine did not differ
significantly from controls. No changes were observed in hypotaurine
and taurine concentrations of heart, kidney, lung, muscle tissue
and spleen. We postulate that partial hepatectomy induces a rapid
increase of hepatic (hypo)taurine synthesis from precursor amino
acids. The increased (hypo)taurine concentrations spill over
Hypotaurine disproportionation reaction: identification of products.
Duprè S; Spirito A; Pinnen F; Sugahara K; Kodama H
Amino Acids, 1998, 15:4, 363-72
Hypotaurine, concentrated under reduced pressure in HCl solution,
partially (30-40%) degrades into taurine (about 30%), 2-aminoethyl-2-aminoethanethiolsulfonate
(about 10%) and ethanolamine. The degradation products were identified
using LC/APCI-MS, NMR, amino acid analysis and various chromatographies.
The identities were confirmed by comparing the HPLS, MS and NMR
characteristics of authentic compounds. One of the degradation
processes during concentration of HCl solution of hypotaurine
is therefore a disproportionation reaction which can interfere
with the experimental results, when studying hypotaurine in biological
Taurine indirectly increases [Ca]i by inducing Ca2+ influx through
the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger.
Bkaily G; Jaalouk D; Sader S; Shbaklo H; Pothier P; Jacques D;
D'Orléans-Juste P; Cragoe EJ Jr; Bose R
Mol Cell Biochem, 1998 Nov, 188:1-2, 187-97
Recent studies in heart cells have shown taurine to induce a
sustained increase of both intracellular Ca2+ and Na+. These
results led us to believe that the increase in Na+ by taurine
could be due to Na+ entry through the taurine-Na+ cotransporter
which in turn favours transarcolemmal Ca2+ influx through Na(+)-Ca2+
exchange. Therefore, we investigated the effect of beta-alanine,
a blocker of the taurine-Na+ cotransporter and low concentrations
of CBDMB (a pyrazine derivative, 5-(N-4chlorobenzyl)-2',4'-dimethylbenzamil),
a Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger blocker on taurine-induced [Ca]i increase
in embryonic chick heart cells. Using Fura-2 Ca2+ imaging and
Fluo-3Ca2+ confocal microscopy techniques, taurine (20 mM) as
expected, induced a sustained increase in [Ca]i at both the cytosolic
and the nuclear levels. Preexposure to 500 microM of the blocker
of the taurine-Na+ cotransporter, beta-alanine, prevented the
amino acid-induced increase of total [Ca]i. On the other hand,
application of beta-alanine did not reverse the action of taurine
on total [Ca]i. However, low concentrations of the Na(+)-Ca2+
exchanger blocker, CBDMB, reversed the taurine-induced sustained
increase of cytosolic and nuclear free calcium (in presence or
absence of beta-alanine). Thus, the effect of taurine on [Ca]i
in heart cells appears to be due to Na+ entry through the taurine-Na+
cotransporter which in turn favours transarcolemmal Ca2+ influx
through the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger.
Immunohistochemical localization of taurine in various tissues
of the mouse.
Terauchi A; Nakazaw A; Johkura K; Yan L; Usuda N
Amino Acids, 1998, 15:1-2, 151-60
The localization of taurine was investigated in several tissues
of the mouse. Immunohistochemical methods using a polyclonal
antibody for taurine derived from rabbits was used in these studies.
This method was used since it is a simple procedure and the results
are clear and reliable. Tissues were fixed with paraformaldehyde,
embedded in paraffin and treated in a microwave oven before using
an avidin-biotin-complex method (ABC method). Control staining
was accomplished by employing absorption staining using various
amino acids: taurine, arginine, cysteine, hypotaurine and others.
For purposes of comparison, radioautography (RAG) with 3H-taurine
was performed to confirm the reliability of the immunohistochemical
staining compared with the localization of the 3H-taurine incorporation
in endothelial cells of the blood vessels of several tissues.
In this investigation, immunoreactivity was broadly observed
in many tissues: Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, glia cells
of brain tissue, cardiac muscle cells, matrices of the bone,
mucus granules of goblet cells of the intestines, and brown adipose
cells of the fetus. Although the meaning of this widespread localization
of taurine can not be explained completely, we surmise that taurine
may have a different function in each of the tissues. In addition,
taurine reactivity was observed in cell nuclei which was evidence
of the presence of taurine in the nuclei.
An updated view of the value of taurine in infant nutrition.
Chesney RW; Helms RA; Christensen M; Budreau AM; Han X; Sturman
Adv Pediatr, 1998, 45:, 179-200
Not only is the gastrointestinal tract the largest immune organ
in the body, but it also contains one of the most important and
interesting immunologic compartments. Host protection against
pathogens and injurious agents by the gastrointestinal tract
is essential for an individual's survival. The intestinal mucosal
immune system, which is linked with other mucosal surfaces and
together represents the common mucosal immune system, prevents
the passage of potentially harmful antigens and pathogens into
the systemic circulation of the host. In a healthy host, antigens
crossing the mucosal barrier in physiologic quantities evoke
the appropriate immune response, which includes polymeric IgA
antibody production to the antigen and systemic tolerance.
Tolerance of N-chlorotaurine, an endogenous antimicrobial agent,
in the rabbit and human eye--a phase I clinical study.
Nagl M; Miller B; Daxecker F; Ulmer H; Gottardi W
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther, 1998 Jun, 14:3, 283-90
N-chlorotaurine (NCT), an essential weak oxidative N-chloro compound
produced by stimulated human leukocytes, shows bactericidal,
fungicidal, virucidal and vermicidal efficacy. A double-blind,
randomized and placebo controlled study was done to evaluate
the tolerance of the aqueous NCT solution by application to rabbit
and human conjunctiva. In six rabbits treated with 1% and 3%
NCT regimen for nine days no ocular and behaviour changes could
be observed. In a pilot study with two volunteers, treatment
with 2.8% NCT for five days caused a self-limited conjunctival
injection of one subject, while 1% NCT was well tolerated. Subsequently,
eight healthy volunteers participated in a phase I clinical study.
One percent NCT was applied for five days and was well tolerated
by all subjects except for minimal eye burning after the application.
Because of these positive results, usage of the antimicrobial
agent NCT in ophthalmology is suggested.
Changes in plasma taurine levels after different endurance events.
Ward RJ; Francaux M; Cuisinier C; Sturbois X; De Witte P
Amino Acids, 1999, 16:1, 71-7
The sulphonated amino acid taurine increased significantly in
the plasma of trained athletes after three endurance exercises
of different duration and intensity, a 90 min run on a treadmill
at 75% of an individual's VO2 peak, a Marathon, 42.2 km and a
100 km run, by 19%, 77% and 36%, respectively. Such results indicated
that the speed at which the exercise is performed, referred to
as the intensity, rather than the duration of the exercise, correlated
with the elevated taurine levels possibly indicating its release
from muscle fibres. The plasma amino acid pool decreased significantly
in relationship with the duration of the exercise, caused by
their utilisation for glucogenesis. The possible
sources of the increased plasma taurine are discussed.