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Title
Tissue-specific enhancement of xenobiotic detoxification enzymes in mice by dietary rosemary extract.
Author
Singletary KW; Rokusek JT
Address
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
Source
Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 50(1):47-53 1997
Abstract
Plant foods contain nutritive and minor, nonnutritive components capable of inhibiting experimental carcinogenesis. Many of these cancer-protective extracts act by enhancing the activities of enzymes that can detoxify reactive substances. In the present study an extract of the spice plant rosemary was fed at concentrations of 0.3% and 0.6% (by weight) for 4 weeks to female A/J mice prior to determination of the activities of the detoxification enzymes glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) in lung, liver and stomach. Liver activities of GST and QR, and stomach GST activity were significantly increased in animals fed diets containing rosemary extract. However, diets supplemented with rosemary extract did not affect lung GST and QR activities. These results indicate that components of rosemary extract have the potential to protect mouse liver and stomach from carcinogenic or toxic agents.

Title
rosemary extract and carnosol stimulate rat liver glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase activities.
Author
Singletary KW
Address
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, 61801, USA.
Source
Cancer Lett, 100(1-2):139-44 1996 Feb 27
Abstract
The effects of dietary intake and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of an extract of the spice rosemary and of the rosemary constituent carnosol on the liver activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H-quinone reductase (QR) in the female rat were evaluated. rosemary extract at concentrations from 0.25 to 1.0% (by wt.) in the diet resulted in a significant 3.5- to 4.5-fold increase in liver GST and a 3.3- to 4.0-fold increase in liver QR activities compared to controls. Carnosol supplemented in the diet at levels from 0.01 to 1.0% did not enhance GST activity. When rosemary extract and carnosol were administered i.p. there was a significant increase in liver GST and QR activities. The injection of rosemary extract (200 mg/kg) was associated with 1.5-fold and 3.2-fold increases in GST and QR activities, respectively, compared to controls. The injection of carnosol at doses from 100 to 400 mg/kg was associated with 1.6- to 1.9-fold increases in GST activity and 3.1- to 4.8-fold increases in QR activity, compared to controls. These data indicate that rosemary extract in the diet or injected i.p. and carnosol administered i.p. are effective enhancers of the in vivo activity of liver GST and QR in the female rat.

Title
Inhibition of skin tumorigenesis by rosemary and its constituents carnosol and ursolic acid.
Author
Huang MT; Ho CT; Wang ZY; Ferraro T; Lou YR; Stauber K; Ma W;
Georgiadis C; Laskin JD; Conney AH
Address
Department of Chemical Biology and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway 08855-0789.
Source
Cancer Res, 54(3):701-8 1994 Feb 1
Abstract
A methanol extract of the leaves of the plant Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) was evaluated for its effects on tumor initiation and promotion in mouse skin. Application of rosemary to mouse skin inhibited the covalent binding of benzo(a)pyrene ÍB(a)PÍ to epidermal DNA and inhibited tumor initiation by B(a)P and 7,12-dimethylbenzÍaÍanthracene (DMBA). Topical application of 20 nmol B(a)P to the backs of mice once weekly for 10 weeks, followed 1 week later by promotion with 15 nmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) twice weekly for 21 weeks, resulted in the formation of 7.1 tumors per mouse. In a parallel group of animals that were treated topically with 1.2 or 3.6 mg of rosemary 5 min prior to each application of B(a)P, the number of tumors per mouse was decreased by 54 or 64%, respectively. Application of rosemary to mouse skin also inhibited TPA-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity, TPA-induced inflammation, arachidonic acid-induced inflammation, TPA-induced hyperplasia, and TPA-induced tumor promotion. Mice initiated with 200 nmol DMBA and promoted with 5 nmol TPA twice weekly for 19 weeks developed an average of 17.2 skin tumors per mouse. Treatment of the DMBA-initiated mice with 0.4, 1.2, or 3.6 mg of rosemary together with 5 nmol TPA twice weekly for 19 weeks inhibited the number of TPA-induced skin tumors per mouse by 40, 68, or 99%, respectively. Topical application of carnosol or ursolic acid isolated from rosemary inhibited TPA-induced ear inflammation, ornithine decarboxylase activity, and tumor promotion. Topical application of 1, 3, or 10 mumol carnosol together with 5 nmol TPA twice weekly for 20 weeks to the backs of mice previously initiated with DMBA inhibited the number of skin tumors per mouse by 38, 63, or 78%, respectively. Topical application of 0.1, 0.3, 1, or 2 mumol ursolic acid together with 5 nmol TPA twice weekly for 20 weeks to DMBA-initiated mice inhibited the number of tumors per mouse by 45-61%.

Title
Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumorigenesis and of in vivo formation of mammary DMBA-DNA adducts by rosemary extract.
Author
Singletary KW; Nelshoppen JM
Address
Division of Foods and Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
 Source
Cancer Lett, 60(2):169-75 1991 Nov
Abstract
The effect of dietary intake of an extract of the spice plant Rosmarinus officinalis L. on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumorigenesis and on the in vivo formation of mammary DMBA-DNA adducts was evaluated. Supplementation of a semi-purified diet with 1.0% (by wt.) rosemary extract resulted in a significant (47%) decrease in mammary tumor incidence compared to controls. In subsequent studies, dietary supplementation with 0.5% and 1.0% rosemary extract inhibited total in vivo binding of DMBA to mammary epithelial cell DNA by an average of 42%. This decrease in total binding was not due to a uniform decrease in the formation of all mammary DMBA-DNA adducts. The formation of two major adducts derived from the anti-diastereomer of DMBA and bound to deoxyguanosine (anti-dGuo) was significantly decreased at both dietary rosemary concentrations. The formation of the syn-dGuo adduct also was inhibited, whereas formation of the syn-dAdo adduct was unaffected by consumption of the rosemary extract. These studies suggest that use of rosemary extract and its individual antioxidative constituents as chemopreventative agents for experimental mammary tumorigenesis warrant further investigation.

Title
Induction of the anti-carcinogenic enzyme quinone reductase by food extracts using murine hepatoma cells.
Author
Tawfiq N; Wanigatunga S; Heaney RK; Musk SR; Williamson G; Fenwick GR
Address
Department of Food Molecular Biochemistry, Norwich Laboratory, Colney, UK.
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev, 3(3):285-92 1994 May
Abstract
Over 145 extracts of vegetables, fruits, herbs, spices and beverages which are consumed regularly in the European diet have been surveyed for potential anti-carcinogenic activity using an assay which measures the induction of NAD(P)H: (quinone acceptor) menadione oxidoreductase (quinone reductase, QR) activity in murine cells challenged with solutions of potential inducers. When appropriate the study has included extracts prepared from cooked and autolysed material. The results indicate that extracts of some brassicas, legumes (peas), lettuces, red pepper, grapefruit and some herbs including basil, tarragon and rosemary are inducers of QR activity. Inducing activity is strongly dependent on processing and on variety.

Title
Inhibition by rosemary and carnosol of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis and in vivo DMBA-DNA adduct formation.
Author
Singletary K; MacDonald C; Wallig M
Address
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois,
Urbana 61801, USA.
Source
Cancer Lett, 104(1):43-8 1996 Jun 24
Abstract
Extracts of the spice rosemary officinalis L. have been reported to inhibit experimental carcinogenesis. Two rosemary components, carnosol and ursolic acid, appear to be partly responsible for the antitumorigenic activity of rosemary. The present studies were conducted in order to evaluate the activity of rosemary extract, carnosol and ursolic acid in inhibiting the in vivo formation of mammary 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-DNA adducts and the initiation of DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female rats. Supplementation of diets for 2 weeks with rosemary extract (0.5% by wt) but not carnosol (1.0%) or ursolic acid (0.5%) resulted in a significant decrease in the in vivo formation of rat mammary DMBA-DNA adducts, compared to controls. When injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 5 days at 200 mg/kg body wt, rosemary and carnosol, but not ursolic acid, significantly inhibited mammary adduct formation by 44% and 40%, respectively, compared to controls. Injection of this dose of rosemary and carnosol was associated with a significant 74% and 65% decrease, respectively, in the number of DMBA-induced mammary adenocarcinomas per rat, compared to controls. Ursolic acid injection had no effect on mammary tumorigenesis. Therefore, carnosol is one rosemary constituent that can prevent DMBA-induced DNA damage and tumor formation in the rat mammary gland, and, thus, has potential for use as a breast cancer chemopreventative agent.

Title
Dietary rosemary suppresses 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene binding to rat mammary cell DNA.
 Author
Amagase H; Sakamoto K; Segal ER; Milner JA
Address
Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802, USA.
Source
J Nutr, 126(5):1475-80 1996 May
Abstract
Commercially available ground rosemary powder was examined for its ability to modify the in vivo binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) metabolites to mammary cell DNA in 55-d-old rats fed diets containing varying quantities and types of lipids. Supplementing a casein-based diet containing 20% corn oil with 1 % rosemary for 2 wk reduced by 76% the occurrence of DMBA-induced DNA adducts occurring 24 h after treatment with 50 mg DMBA/kg body weight. A comparable reduction in DNA adducts (66%) occurred when 0.5% rosemary was added to a diet containing 20% corn oil, and the quantity of DMBA given was reduced to 25 mg/kg body weight. The reduction in the occurrence of adducts occurring 24 h after DMBA treatment caused by 0.5% dietary rosemary was greater (P < 0.05) when added to a diet containing 20% corn oil than when added to a diet containing 5% corn oil and 15% coconut oil. rosemary, 1% but not 0.5%, reduced DMBA-induced DNA adducts when the diet contained 5% corn oil. These studies demonstrate that rosemary is effective in reducing the binding of DMBA metabolites to rat mammary cell DNA. Furthermore, the present studies demonstrate that the benefits of rosemary are dependent on the source and concentration of dietary lipids.

Title
rosemary components inhibit benzo[a]pyrene-induced genotoxicity in human bronchial cells.
Author
Offord EA; Macé K; Ruffieux C; Malnoë A; Pfeifer AM
Address
Nestlé Research Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Source
Carcinogenesis, 16(9):2057-62 1995 Sep
Abstract
The commonly used spice and flavouring agent, rosemary, derived from the leaves of the plant Rosmarinus officinalis L., displays antioxidant properties in foods and in biological systems. Moreover, in animal models rosemary components were found to inhibit the initiation and tumour promotion phases of carcinogenesis. In this work, we studied the mechanisms by which rosemary components block initiation of carcinogenesis by the procarcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Whole rosemary extract (6 micrograms/ml) or an equivalent concentration of its most potent antioxidant constituents, carnosol or carnosic acid, inhibited DNA adduct formation by 80% after 6 h co-incubation with 1.5 muM B[a]P. Under similar conditions, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 mRNA expression was 50% lower in the presence of rosemary components, and CYP1A1 activity was inhibited 70-90%. The observed reduction of DNA adduct formation by rosemary components may mostly result from the inhibition of the activation of benzo[a]pyrene to its ultimate metabolites. Carnosol also affected expression of the phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase which is known to detoxify the proximate carcinogenic metabolite of B[a]P. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with carnosol (1 microgram/ml) for 24 h resulted in a 3- to 4-fold induction of GST pi mRNA. Moreover, expression of a second important phase II enzyme, NAD(P)H: quinone reductase, was induced by carnosol in parallel with GST pi. Therefore, rosemary components have the potential to decrease activation and increase detoxification of an important human carcinogen, identifying them as promising candidates for chemopreventive programs.

Title
Flavonoids in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves.
Author
Okamura N; Haraguchi H; Hashimoto K; Yagi A
Address
Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Hiroshima, Japan.
 Source
Phytochemistry, 37(5):1463-6 1994 Nov
Abstract
Three new flavonoid glucuronides, luteolin 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronide, luteolin 3'-O-(4"-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucuronide, and luteolin 3'-O-(3"-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucuronide, together with hesperidin, were isolated from 50% aqueous MeOH extract of the leaves of rosemary. The structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated by a ferric thiocyanate method with hesperidin showing the greatest activity.

Title
Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus by essential oils of selected plant materials.
 Author
Tantaoui-Elaraki A; Beraoud L
Address
Department of Food Microbiology and Biotechnology, Hassan II Institute for Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts, Morocco.
Source
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 13(1):67-72 1994
Abstract
We studied the effect of 13 chemically different essential oils (EO) on the mycelial growth of and aflatoxin synthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus. Cinnamon, thyme, oregano, and cumin EO were able to stop mycelial growth at only 0.1% in the medium, while curcumin, ginger, lemon, and orange EO were unable to inhibit totally the growth even at 1% concentration. Coriander, black pepper, mugwort, bay, and rosemary EO caused the growth to stop at concentrations between 0.2 and 1%. The EO most active upon mycelial growth were also the most active against aflatoxinogenesis. However, aflatoxin synthesis was inhibited by all the EO at higher extent than the mycelial growth.

Title
Salicylates in foods.
Author
Swain AR; Dutton SP; Truswell AS
Source
J Am Diet Assoc, 85(8):950-60 1985 Aug
Abstract
To determine salicylate content, 333 food items were analyzed. Foods were homogenized with 25% sodium hydroxide, allowed to stand overnight, acidified with concentrated hydrochloric acid, and then extracted with warm diethylether over 5 hours. The extract was dried and taken up in dilute sodium bicarbonate solution for analysis. Salicylic acid was separated by high performance liquid chromatography and quantified by reading at 235 nm. Salicylic acid standards were used throughout to standardize extractions and analyses. This is the most comprehensive set of data on food salicylates yet published; extraction appears to have been more complete for some foods, giving higher values than those previously published. Most fruits, especially berry fruits and dried fruits, contain salicylate. Vegetables show a wide range from 0 to 6 mg salicylate per 100 gm food (for gherkins). Some herbs and spices were found to contain very high amounts per 100 gm, e.g., curry powder, paprika, thyme, garam masala, and rosemary. Among beverages, tea provides substantial amounts of salicylate. Licorice and peppermint candies and some honeys contain salicylates. Cereals, meat, fish, and dairy products contain none or negligible amounts.

Title
Mechanisms involved in the chemoprotective effects of rosemary extract studied in human liver and bronchial cells.
 Author
Offord EA; Macé K; Avanti O; Pfeifer AM
Address
Nestlé Research Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland. elizabeth.offord-cavin@chlsnr.nestrd.ch
Source
Cancer Lett, 114(1-2):275-81 1997 Mar 19
Abstract
Natural polyphenols found in rosemary have not only potent antioxidant activities but also anticarcinogenic properties. We have studied some of the molecular mechanisms involved in their chemopreventive action using in vitro human liver and bronchial cell models. rosemary extract, or its active components, carnosol or carnosic acid are potent inhibitors of DNA adduct formation induced by benzo(a)pyrene or aflatoxin B1. At least two mechanisms are involved in the anticarcinogenic action of rosemary extract: (i) inhibition of the metabolic activation of procarcinogens catalysed by the phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes; (ii) induction of the detoxification pathway catalysed by the phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase.

Title
An evaluation of the antioxidant and antiviral action of extracts of rosemary and Provençal herbs.
Author
Aruoma OI; Spencer JP; Rossi R; Aeschbach R; Khan A; Mahmood N; Munoz A; Murcia A; Butler J; Halliwell B
Address
Pharmacology Group, University of London King's College, UK.
Source
Food Chem Toxicol, 34(5):449-56 1996 May
Abstract
Extracts of herbs and spices are increasingly of interest in the food industry because they retard oxidative degradation of lipids. There is also increasing interest in the antiviral activity of plant products. A liquid, deodorized rosemary extract and an oily extract of a mixture of Provençal herbs were tested for antioxidant and antiviral action in vitro. The rosemary extract (Herbor 025) and the extract of Provençal herbs (Spice Cocktail) inhibited peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes with 50% inhibition concentration values of 0.0009% (v/v) and 0.0035% (v/v), respectively. Herbor 025 and the spice cocktail (at 0.2%, v/v) reacted with trichloromethylperoxyl radical with calculated rates of 2.7 x 10(4) s-1 and 1.5 x 10(3) s-1, respectively. The main active components in the herbal preparations, carnosol and carnosic acid, at 0.05% (v/v) react with rate constants of (1-3) x 10(6) M-1 sec-1 and 2.7 x 10(7) M-1 sec-1, respectively. Both extracts show good antioxidant activity in the Rancimat test, especially in lard. Herbor 025 and the spice cocktail inhibited human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at very low concentrations which were also cytotoxic. However, purified carnosol exhibited definite anti-HIV activity at a concentration (8 microM) which was not cytotoxic. Both preparations promoted some DNA damage in the copper-phenanthroline and the bleomycin-iron systems. The two herbal preparations possess antioxidant properties that may make them useful in the food matrix.

Title
Study of the embryotoxic effects of an extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.).
Lemonica IP; Damasceno DC; di-Stasi LC
Address
Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Brasil.
Braz J Med Biol Res, 29(2):223-7 1996 Feb
Abstract
Extracts of rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L., have been used in folk medicine as a diuretic, an emenagogue, an antispasmodic and its aqueous extract does not present toxicity to man, presenting, however, abortive effects. In order to evaluate if this plant induces abortion and/or interferes with the normal development of the concepts, doses of 26 mg of a 30% (w/v) R. officinalis aqueous extract (13 mg solids/ml) made with leaves, flowers and stem were administered daily by gavage during two different periods of Wistar rat pregnancy. One group of animals (N = 12) received the extract from days 1 to 6 of pregnancy (preimplantation period) and another group (N = 14) received the same extract from days 6 to 15 of pregnancy (organogenic period). Control groups (N = 12) received saline in the same volume and during the same periods as their respective experimental groups. The animals were sacrificed at term. The treatment of the dams during either the preimplantation or the organogenic period did not cause significant changes in the postimplantation loss or in the number of anomalies or malformations of the term fetuses, which also showed a similar degree of development when compared with the respective controls. The percent of preimplantation loss in the group treated before embryo implantation increased, although the difference was not significant compared to the control. This result suggests that rosemary extract may present an anti-implantation effect without interfering with the normal development of the concept after implantation.
Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of active rosemary constituents: carnosol and carnosic acid.
1. Carnosol and carnosic acid have been suggested to account for over 90% of the antioxidant properties of rosemary extract. 2. Purified carnosol and carnosic acid are powerful inhibitors of lipid peroxidation in microsomal and liposomal systems, more effective than propyl gallate. 3. Carnosol and carnosic acid are good scavengers of peroxyl radicals (CCl3O2.) generated by pulse radiolysis, with calculated rate constants of 1-3 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 and 2.7 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 respectively. 4. Carnosic acid reacted with HOCl in such a way as to protect the protein alpha 1-antiproteinase against inactivation. 5. Both carnosol and carnosic acid stimulated DNA damage in the bleomycin assay but they scavenged hydroxyl radicals in the deoxyribose assay. The calculated rate constants for reaction with .OH in the deoxyribose system for carnosol and carnosic acid were 8.7 x 10(10) M-1 s-1 and 5.9 x 10(10) M-1 s-1 respectively. 6. Carnosic acid appears to scavenge H2O2, but it could also act as a substrate for the peroxidase system. 7. Carnosic acid and carnosol reduce cytochrome c but with a rate constant significantly lower than that of O2(-.).

Title
Natural antioxidants as inhibitors of oxygen species induced mutagenicity.
Author
Minnunni M; Wolleb U; Mueller O; Pfeifer A; Aeschbacher HU
Address
Nestec Ltd, Nestlé Research Centre, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Source
Mutat Res, 269(2):193-200 1992 Oct
Abstract
A ternary antioxidant vitamin mix consisting of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and lecithin as well as a rosemary extract with carnosic acid and carnosol as the two major active ingredients were shown to exhibit strong antimutagenic effects in Ames tester strain TA102. This strain has been shown to be highly sensitive to reactive oxygen species. Mutagenicity was induced by the generation of oxygen radicals by tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (tBOOH) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); therefore, the antimutagenic property of the above substances was attributed to their antioxidant properties. In the case of the vitamin mix, ascorbic acid was held responsible for this inhibitory property, whereas for the rosemary extract carnosic acid was identified as the antimutagenic agent. Since oxygen radicals are known to be involved in the multiprocess of carcinogenicity, it is concluded that these antioxidants might exhibit anticarcinogenic properties.
Effects of three dietary phytochemicals from tea, rosemary and turmeric on inflammation-induced nitrite production.

Title
Radical intermediates and antioxidants: an ESR study of radicals formed on carnosic acid in the presence of oxidized lipids.
Author
Geoffroy M; Lambelet P; Richert P
Address
Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
Source
Free Radic Res, 21(4):247-58 1994 Sep
Abstract
Carnosic acid, an antioxidant extracted from rosemary, is shown to produce radicals when in contact with oxidized methyl oleate in the absence of air above 50 degrees C. Two radical species are formed: the first one, stable up to approximately 110 degrees C, is an hydroxy-phenoxy radical whose ESR spectrum was analyzed by studying its temperature dependence and its sensitivity to deuterium/proton exchange. The second species was observed above 110 degrees C, its ESR spectrum was identical to the spectrum obtained when carnosol, another antioxidant extracted from rosemary, was heated at the same temperature in the presence of oxidized lipid. This observation is probably due to the transformation of carnosic acid into carnosol; the analysis of the corresponding ESR spectrum suggests the formation of a keto phenoxy radical exhibiting a great delocalization of the unpaired electron.

Title
Inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on HIV-1 protease in cell-free assays [corrected] [published erratum appears in J Nat Prod 1994
Apr;57(4):552]
Author
Paris A; Strukelj B; Renko M; Turk V; Pukl M; Umek A; Korant BD
Address
Department of Biochemistry, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Source
J Nat Prod, 56(8):1426-30 1993 Aug
Abstract
In order to find new effective HIV protease inhibitors, two diterpenes (carnosic acid [1] and carnosol [5]) were isolated from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and rosmanol [2] and semisynthetic derivatives (7-O-methylrosmanol [3], 7-O-ethylrosmanol [4], and 11,12-O,O-dimethylcarnosol [6]) were prepared. The inhibitory activity of all six compounds against HIV-1 protease was tested. The carnosic acid [1] showed the strongest inhibitory effect (IC90 = 0.08 micrograms/ml). The same compound was also assayed against HIV-1 virus replication (IC90 = 0.32 micrograms/ml). The cytotoxic TC90 on H9 lymphocytes was 0.36 micrograms/ml, which is very close to the effective antiviral dose. Additionally, the tested compounds did not inhibit cellular aspartic proteases cathepsin D and pepsin at the concentration range up to 10 micrograms/ml [corrected].

 

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