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 Chicory FOS

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Title
Health benefits of non-digestible oligosaccharides.
Author

Roberfroid MB
Source

Adv Exp Med Biol, 1997, 427:, 211-9
Abstract

Non-digestible oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates of the non-a-glucan type which, because of the configuration of their osidic bonds, resist hydrolysis by salivary and intestinal digestive enzymes. In the colon they are fermented by anaerobic bacteria. Among the non-digestible oligosaccharides, the chicory fructooligosaccharides occupy a key position and, in most european countries, they are recognised as natural food ingredients. The other major products are the short chain fructooligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides obtained by enzymatic synthesis using sucrose and lactose as substrates respectively, the soybean oligosaccharides, the xylooligosaccharides produced by partial hydrolysis of xylans and polydextrose or pyrodextrins prepared by a chemical treatment of carbohydrates. The most well known effect of most non-digestible oligosaccharides, and in particular of the fructooligosaccharides, is the selective stimulation of the growth of Bifidobacteria thus modifying significantly the composition of the colonic microbiota. Such a modification, which has clearly been demonstrated in human volunteers, is meant to be benificial in part because it is accompanied by a significant reduction in the number of bacteria reported to have pathogenic potential. Within the framework of research and development of "functional foods", such an effect justifies a "functional claim" for fructooligosaccharides namely "bifidogenesis". They are also typical "prebiotics". Besides their bifidogenic effect, the chicory fructooligosaccharides have additional nutritional properties on digestive physiological parameters like colonic pH and stool bulking which justify their classification as dietary fibers. Moreover, in experimental models, it has also been reported that they improve the bioavailability of essentiel minerals and that they reduce serum triglyceridemia by lowering hepatic lipogenesis. Such effects demonstrate interactions between the chicory fructooligosaccharides and key functions in the body but their significance for humans still need to be proven before being used to justify additional claims.

Title
Functional effects of food components and the gastrointestinal system: chicory fructooligosaccharides.
Author

Roberfroid MB
Source

Nutr Rev, 1996 Nov, 54:11 Pt 2, S38-42
Abstract

Functional food science, as recently proposed by ILSI Europe, opens new perspectives in nutrition and food sciences. The systematic investigation of the interactions between food components or food ingredients and genomic, biochemical, cellular, or physiological functions is a unique way to improve both our knowledge and the role of nutrition in maintaining good health and in preventing disease. However, such basic knowledge is insufficient to justify claims, unless it is confirmed through relevant nutrition studies aimed at demonstrating the same effect and its positive consequences in humans. In the first stage, this demonstration will in most cases justify functional (physiological) claims (e.g., bifidogenic effect for fructooligosaccharides, bulking effect for nondigestible carbohydrates, protection against oxidative stress for antioxidants) with no reference to any health benefit. A true health claim will require, in most cases, additional studies involving large populations and long-term trials. It is anticipated that the better we understand the mechanism of interactions between food components and specific biological functions, the more we will be able to demonstrate functional effects, and the easier it will be to accumulate convincing evidence in favor of health promotion or disease prevention. Because of both its direct contact with eaten foods and the diversity of its functions, the GI system is a potential target for many functional effects. Until now, only a limited number of these effects have been investigated so as to justify functional claims. Improvement of glucose absorption (leading to physiological glycemia and insulinemia), modulation of GI transit time, fecal bulking, acidification of colonic content, and control of cholesterol bioavailability are all recognized effects of dietary fiber. Balanced colonic microflora and immunostimulation are attributed to the consumption of probiotics. Prebiotics selectively modify the colonic microbiota and modulate hepatic lipogenesis. According to the ILSI Europe strategy for the development of functional foods, all these effects are of interest. Their support by sound scientific arguments will be a necessary condition for their implementation in food science and nutrition for the benefit of human health.

Title
Digestion, excretion, and energy value of fructooligosaccharides in healthy humans.
Author

Molis C; Flourié B; Ouarne F; Gailing MF; Lartigue S; Guibert A; Bornet F; Galmiche JP
Source

Am J Clin Nutr, 1996 Sep, 64:3, 324-8
Abstract

The fate of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in the human gastrointestinal tract was evaluated in six healthy volunteers over an 11-d period. After an equilibration phase, 20.1 g FOS/d was given in three identical postprandial doses. Distal ileal output of FOS and their constituent components were determined by intestinal aspiration after a single meal, and the amounts of FOS excreted in stools and urine were also measured. Most of ingested FOS, 89 +/- 8.3% (mean +/- SEM), was not absorbed in the small intestine, and none was excreted in stools, indicating that the portion reaching the colon was completely fermented by colonic flora. A small fraction of ingested FOS was recovered in urine. The mean estimated energy value of FOS was 9.5 kJ/g. We conclude that in healthy humans, FOS are only slightly digested in the small intestine and then fermented in the colon, resulting in reduced energy production.

Title
Calcium and magnesium absorption from the colon and rectum are increased in rats fed fructooligosaccharides.
Author

Ohta A; Ohtsuki M; Baba S; Adachi T; Sakata T; Sakaguchi E
Source

J Nutr, 1995 Sep, 125:9, 2417-24
Abstract

We investigated the effects of fructooligosaccharides on the absorption of calcium, magnesium and water from the colon and rectum of rats fed a control diet or the control diet containing 50 g fructooligosaccharides/kg. Chromium-mordanted cellulose was used as an unabsorbable marker to calculate apparent absorption of calcium and magnesium. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.982, P < 0.001 in rats fed the control diet and r = 0.975, P < 0.001 in rats fed the fructooligosaccharides-containing diet) between the amount of chromium and the dry weight of each fecal pellet in the colon and rectum. Ratios of calcium to chromium and magnesium to chromium in fecal pellets in the colon and rectum were calibrated from the Ca:Cr and Mg:Cr ratios of cecal contents. In rats fed the fructooligosaccharides-containing diet, but not in rats fed the control diet, these ratios were correlated with the fractional length of transit along the colon and rectum, indicating linear disappearance of calcium and magnesium during the colorectal passage. Total apparent absorption of calcium and magnesium, predicted from regression equations with the Ca:Cr and Mg:Cr ratios of cecal contents, agreed well with those calculated from the Ca:Cr and Mg:Cr ratios of feces. The consumption of fructooligosaccharides did not affect net water absorption from the colon and rectum. These results indicated that fructooligosaccharides significantly increased calcium and magnesium absorption and that indigestible and fermentable carbohydrate facilitates colorectal absorption of calcium and magnesium.

Title
Consumption of fructooligosaccharides does not favorably affect blood glucose and serum lipid concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Author

Alles MS; de Roos NM; Bakx JC; van de Lisdonk E; Zock PL; Hautvast GA
Source

Am J Clin Nutr, 1999 Jan, 69:1, 64-9
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Fructooligosaccharides have been claimed to lower fasting glycemia and serum total cholesterol concentrations, possibly via effects of short-chain fatty acids produced during fermentation. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of fructooligosaccharides on blood glucose, serum lipids, and serum acetate in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: In a randomized, single-blind, crossover design, patients consumed either glucose as a placebo (4 g/d) or fructooligosaccharides (15 g/d) for 20 d each. Average daily intakes of energy, macronutrients, and dietary fiber were similar with both treatments. RESULTS: Compliance, expressed as the proportion of supplements not returned, was near 100% during both treatments. Fructooligosaccharides did not significantly affect fasting concentrations (mmol/L) of serum total cholesterol (95% CI: -0.07, 0.48), HDL cholesterol (-0.04, 0.04), LDL cholesterol (-0.06, 0.34), serum triacylglycerols (-0.21, 0.44), serum free fatty acids (-0.08, 0.04), serum acetate (-0.01, 0.01), or blood glucose (-0.37, 0.40). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 20 d of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides had no major effect on blood glucose, serum lipids, or serum acetate in patients with type 2 diabetes. This lack of effect was not due to changes in dietary intake, insufficient statistical power, or noncompliance of the patients.

Title
Health benefits of non-digestible oligosaccharides.
Author

Roberfroid MB
Source

Adv Exp Med Biol, 1997, 427:, 211-9
Abstract

Non-digestible oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates of the non-a-glucan type which, because of the configuration of their osidic bonds, resist hydrolysis by salivary and intestinal digestive enzymes. In the colon they are fermented by anaerobic bacteria. Among the non-digestible oligosaccharides, the chicory fructooligosaccharides occupy a key position and, in most european countries, they are recognised as natural food ingredients. The other major products are the short chain fructooligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides obtained by enzymatic synthesis using sucrose and lactose as substrates respectively, the soybean oligosaccharides, the xylooligosaccharides produced by partial hydrolysis of xylans and polydextrose or pyrodextrins prepared by a chemical treatment of carbohydrates. The most well known effect of most non-digestible oligosaccharides, and in particular of the fructooligosaccharides, is the selective stimulation of the growth of Bifidobacteria thus modifying significantly the composition of the colonic microbiota. Such a modification, which has clearly been demonstrated in human volunteers, is meant to be benificial in part because it is accompanied by a significant reduction in the number of bacteria reported to have pathogenic potential. Within the framework of research and development of "functional foods", such an effect justifies a "functional claim" for fructooligosaccharides namely "bifidogenesis". They are also typical "prebiotics". Besides their bifidogenic effect, the chicory fructooligosaccharides have additional nutritional properties on digestive physiological parameters like colonic pH and stool bulking which justify their classification as dietary fibers. Moreover, in experimental models, it has also been reported that they improve the bioavailability of essentiel minerals and that they reduce serum triglyceridemia by lowering hepatic lipogenesis. Such effects demonstrate interactions between the chicory fructooligosaccharides and key functions in the body but their significance for humans still need to be proven before being used to justify additional claims.

Title
Effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides on colonic microbiota populations and epithelial cell proliferation in neonatal pigs.
Author

Howard MD; Gordon DT; Pace LW; Garleb KA; Kerley MS
Source

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 1995 Oct, 21:3, 297-303
Abstract

Two experiments were conducted with neonatal pigs to determine the effects of feeding fructooligosaccharides on cecal and colonic microbiota, proliferation of cecal and colonic epithelial mucosa, and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the cecum. Experiment 1 consisted of feeding neonatal pigs diets containing either 0 or 3 g fructooligosaccharies/L of formula for 15 days and then examining the large intestine for changes in cecal and proximal colonic microbiota; cecal pH; short-chain fatty acid concentrations; morphology of cecal, proximal, and distal colonic epithelial mucosa; gross necropsy; and histopathology. Supplementation with fructooligosacchariudes (FOS) did not alter cell counts of viable bifidobacterial organisms or total anaerobic microbiota, cecal pH, or concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. Cecal mucosal cell density and labeled cells increased with FOS consumption. Proximal colonic mucosal crypt height, leading edge, labeled cells, proliferation zone, and labeling index increased with FOS consumption. Distal colonic mucosal crypt height, leading edge, cell density, labeling index, and labeled cells increased with FOS consumption. Gross necropsy and histopathology found no significan lesions. In Experiment 2, neonatal pigs were fed diets containing either 0 or 3 g fructooligosaccharides/L of formula for 6 days. Fecal samples were collected on the first full day of feeding and on days 3 and 6 after initiation of feeding. On days 1 and 3, concentrations of bifidobacteria were similar between diets; however, on day 6, pigs consuming FOS tended to have greater numbers of bifidobacteria (p = 0.08). These data suggest dietary consumption of FOS will enhance bifidobacteria populations and prevent colonic epithelial mucosa atrophy in neonates fed an elemental diet.

Title
Fructooligosaccharides and lactulose cause more symptoms in lactose maldigesters and subjects with pseudohypolactasia than in control lactose digesters.
Author

Teuri U; Vapaatalo H; Korpela R
Source

Am J Clin Nutr, 1999 May, 69:5, 973-9
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Many lactose maldigesters tolerate more lactose in experimental studies than in everyday life, in which their symptoms may result from other carbohydrates as well. OBJECTIVE: The question of whether the symptoms caused by large quantities of carbohydrates are more severe in lactose maldigesters than in control lactose digesters or in lactose digesters who report milk to be the cause of their gastrointestinal symptoms (pseudohypolactasic subjects) was studied in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Comparisons between commonly used diagnostic methods for lactose maldigestion were also made. DESIGN: The subjects were 40 women aged 20-63 y from 3 groups: lactose maldigesters (n = 12), pseudohypolactasic subjects (n = 15), and control lactose digesters (n = 13). The subjects were given either 50 g lactose, 50 g sucrose, 25 g lactulose, or 25 g fructooligosaccharides. After carbohydrate ingestion, urine was collected and the breath-hydrogen concentration was measured every 30 min for 3 h. Blood glucose was measured every 20 min for 1 h and subjective gastrointestinal symptoms were monitored for 8 h with a questionnaire. RESULTS: When lactulose and fructooligosaccharides were ingested, the lactose maldigesters (P = 0.04 and 0.09, respectively) and the pseudohypolactasic subjects (P = 0.006 and 0.01, respectively) reported more symptoms than did the control lactose digesters. Sucrose caused more symptoms in the lactose maldigesters than in the control lactose digesters (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Lactose maldigesters and lactose digesters with pseudohypolactasia experience more symptoms than control lactose digesters after a single intake of large amounts of indigestible carbohydrates. Lactose maldigesters also experience more symptoms after ingesting sucrose.

Title
Dietary fructooligosaccharides change the concentration of calbindin-D9k differently in the mucosa of the small and large intestine of rats.
Author

Ohta A; Motohashi Y; Ohtsuki M; Hirayama M; Adachi T; Sakuma K
Source

J Nutr, 1998 Jun, 128:6, 934-9
Abstract

Previously, we confirmed that dietary fructooligosaccharides (FOS) increase calcium absorption in rats. In this study, we examined the influence of FOS feeding on the concentration of calbindin-D9k of several intestinal segments in rats. Rats in the control group were fed a diet without FOS. Rats in the other two groups were fed the diet containing FOS at either 50 or 100 g/kg for 10 d and subjected to a calcium absorption study. On the final day of feeding, the rats were killed and the entire intestine was removed. The intestinal mucosa was collected from four segments, i.e., the proximal and distal segments of the small intestine, the cecum and the colorectum, respectively. The apparent absorption of calcium increased dose dependently (r = 0.9256, P < 0.0001). Significant positive correlations between apparent calcium absorption and the relative amounts of calbindin in both large intestinal segments were observed (cecum, r = 0.8956, P = 0.0011; colorectum, r = 0.8828, P = 0.0016). Also, significant negative correlations between apparent calcium absorption and the relative amounts of calbindin-D9k in both small intestinal segments were observed (proximal, r = -0.7149, P = 0. 0304; distal, r = -0.8740, P = 0.0021). In conclusion, FOS feeding increases levels of calbindin-D9k in the large intestine, but decreases those in the small intestine. Moreover, these results suggest that part of the stimulatory effect of fructooligosaccharides relates to the transcellular route of calcium absorption in the large intestine of rats.

Title
Functional effects of food components and the gastrointestinal system: chicory fructooligosaccharides.
Author

Roberfroid MB
Source

Nutr Rev, 1996 Nov, 54:11 Pt 2, S38-42
Abstract

Functional food science, as recently proposed by ILSI Europe, opens new perspectives in nutrition and food sciences. The systematic investigation of the interactions between food components or food ingredients and genomic, biochemical, cellular, or physiological functions is a unique way to improve both our knowledge and the role of nutrition in maintaining good health and in preventing disease. However, such basic knowledge is insufficient to justify claims, unless it is confirmed through relevant nutrition studies aimed at demonstrating the same effect and its positive consequences in humans. In the first stage, this demonstration will in most cases justify functional (physiological) claims (e.g., bifidogenic effect for fructooligosaccharides, bulking effect for nondigestible carbohydrates, protection against oxidative stress for antioxidants) with no reference to any health benefit. A true health claim will require, in most cases, additional studies involving large populations and long-term trials. It is anticipated that the better we understand the mechanism of interactions between food components and specific biological functions, the more we will be able to demonstrate functional effects, and the easier it will be to accumulate convincing evidence in favor of health promotion or disease prevention. Because of both its direct contact with eaten foods and the diversity of its functions, the GI system is a potential target for many functional effects. Until now, only a limited number of these effects have been investigated so as to justify functional claims. Improvement of glucose absorption (leading to physiological glycemia and insulinemia), modulation of GI transit time, fecal bulking, acidification of colonic content, and control of cholesterol bioavailability are all recognized effects of dietary fiber. Balanced colonic microflora and immunostimulation are attributed to the consumption of probiotics. Prebiotics selectively modify the colonic microbiota and modulate hepatic lipogenesis. According to the ILSI Europe strategy for the development of functional foods, all these effects are of interest. Their support by sound scientific arguments will be a necessary condition for their implementation in food science and nutrition for the benefit of human health.

 

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