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Cat's Claw

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Title
Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human tumor cells treated with extracts of Uncaria tomentosa.
Author
Sheng Y; Pero RW; Amiri A; Bryngelsson C
Source
Anticancer Res, 1998 Sep, 18:5A, 3363-8
Abstract
Growth inhibitory activities of novel water extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (C-Med-100) were examined in vitro using two human leukemic cell lines (K562 and HL60) and one human EBV-transformed B lymphoma cell line (Raji). The proliferative capacities of HL60 and Raji cells were strongly suppressed in the presence of the C-Med-100 while K562 was more resistant to the inhibition. Furthermore, the antiproliferative effect was confirmed using the clonogenic assay, which showed a very close correlation between C-Med-100 concentration and the surviving fraction. The suppressive effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts on tumor cell growth appears to be mediated through induction of apoptosis which was demonstrated by characteristic morphological changes, internucleosomal DNA
fragmentation after agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA fragmentation quantification. C-Med-100 induced a delayed type of apoptosis becoming most dose-dependently prominent after 48 hours of exposure. Both DNA single and double strand breaks were
increased 24 hours after C-Med-100 treatment, which suggested a well-established linkage between the DNA damage and apoptosis. The induction of DNA strand breaks coupled to apoptosis may explain the growth inhibition of the tumor cells by Uncaria tomentosa extracts. These results provide the first direct evidence for the antitumor properties of Uncaria tomentosa extracts to be via a mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis.

Title
Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of Uncaria tomentosa and its extracts.
Author
Rizzi R; Re F; Bianchi A; De Feo V; de Simone F; Bianchi L; Stivala LA
Source
J Ethnopharmacol, 1993 Jan, 38:1, 63-77
Abstract
Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of extracts and chromatographic fractions of Uncariatomentosa bark are reported. The plant extracts and fractions show no mutagenic effect in
different strains of Salmonella typhimurium with and without metabolic activation. However, the plant extracts and fractions show a protective antimutagenic effect in vitro against photomutagenesis induced by 8-methoxy-psoralen (8-MOP) plus UVA in S. typhimurium TA 102. A decoction of U. tomentosa ingested daily for 15 days by a smoker decreased the mutagenicity induced in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 by the subject's urine.

Title
Plant metabolites. New compounds and anti-inflammatory activity of Uncaria tomentosa.
Author
Aquino R; De Feo V; De Simone F; Pizza C; Cirino G
Source
J Nat Prod, 1991 Mar, 54:2, 453-9
Abstract
Bioassay-directed fractionation of the anti-inflammatory extracts of Uncaria tomentosa,
using the carrageenan-induced edema in rat paw, has led to the isolation of a new quinovic
acid glycoside 7 as one of the active principles. Furthermore, a new triterpene 8 was isolated
as its methyl ester. The structures were elucidated by spectral and chemical studies.

Title
New polyhydroxylated triterpenes from Uncaria tomentosa.
Author
Aquino R; De Simone F; Vincieri FF; Pizza C; Gacs Baitz E
Source
J Nat Prod, 1990 May, 53:3, 559-64
Abstract
Three novel polyhydroxylated triterpenes have been isolated from Uncaria tomentosa. Their structures were established as 1, 2, and 3 by detailed spectral studies including 1H-13C correlations via long range couplings using the INAPT pulse sequence, nOeds, and 2D
1H-13C direct chemical shift correlation (HETCOR) nmr techniques.

Title
Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C.: cat's claw, uña de gato, or savéntaro.
Author
Reinhard KH
Source
J Altern Complement Med, 1999 Apr, 5:2, 143-51
Abstract
Recently, Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C. has become known as a healing plant with an ethnomedicinal background. There have been several reports on its constituents, in particular, oxindole alkaloids. It was found that 2 chemotypes of Uncaria tomentosa with different alkaloid patterns occur in nature. The roots of one type contain pentacyclic oxindoles and the other contains tetracyclic oxindoles. This difference should be considered when the plant is to be used for medicinal applications. Tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids act on the central nervous system, whereas pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids affect the cellular immune system. Recent studies have shown that the tetracyclic alkaloids exert antagonistic effects on the action of the pentacyclic alkaloids. Mixtures of these 2 types of drugs are therefore unsuitable for medicinal uses.

Title
Evaluation of the toxicity of Uncaria tomentosa by bioassays in vitro.
Author
Santa Maria A; Lopez A; Diaz MM; Albán J; Galán de Mera A; Vicente Orellana JA; Pozuelo JM
Source
J Ethnopharmacol, 1997 Aug, 57:3, 183-7
Abstract
Aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willdenow ex Roemer and Schultes) DC. (Rubiaceae) ('Uña de gato'), were analyzed for the presence of toxic compounds in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) and bacterial cells (Photobacterium phosphoreum). Toxicity was
evaluated by four systems: Neutral red assay (NR), total protein content (KB), tetrazolium assay (MTT) and Microtox test. The extracts of U. tomentosa did not show toxicity in vitro at the concentrations tested. Testing in vitro could be a valuable tool for evaluating toxicity of medicinal plants.

Title
Plant metabolites. Structure and in vitro antiviral activity of quinovic acid glycosides from Uncaria tomentosa and Guettarda platypoda.
Author
Aquino R; De Simone F; Pizza C; Conti C; Stein ML
Source
J Nat Prod, 1989 Jul, 52:4, 679-85
Abstract
A reinvestigation of the bark of Uncaria tomentosa afforded, in addition to the major quinovic acid glycosides 1-3, three further glycosides 4-6. The structures were elucidated by spectral and chemical studies. Furthermore, a series of antiviral tests were performed on all these glycosides and on the related glycosides 7-9, previously isolated from Guettarda platypoda.

Title
Stimulation of interleukin-1 and -6 production in alveolar macrophages by the neotropical liana, Uncaria tomentosa (uña de gato)
Author
Lemaire I; Assinewe V; Cano P; Awang DV; Arnason JT
Source
J Ethnopharmacol, 1999 Feb, 64:2, 109-15
Abstract
Two extracts of different collections of the traditional medicine uña de gato (Uncaria tomentosa) from Peru were characterized by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography as containing approximately 6 mg/g total oxindole content prior to studies with alveolar macrophages. The plant preparations greatly stimulated IL-1 and IL-6 production by rat
macrophages in a dose dependent manner in the range of 0.025-0.1 mg/ml. They were also able to enhance IL-1 and -6 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The results
suggest a strong immunostimulant action of this plant.

Title
Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.--ethnomedicinal use and new pharmacological, toxicological and botanical results.
Author
Keplinger K; Laus G; Wurm M; Dierich MP; Teppner H
Source
J Ethnopharmacol, 1999 Jan, 64:1, 23-34
Abstract
The medicinal system of the Asháninka Indians in Perú is portrayed. Three categories of medical disorders and healers are recognized. A human is viewed to consist of a physical and a spiritual being who communicate with each other by means of a regulating element.
The significance of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae), locally known as unã de gato, in traditional medicine is emphasized by its exclusive use by priests to influence this regulation. Pharmacological and toxicological results obtained with extracts or isolated compounds are summarized. Pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids stimulate endothelial cells in vitro to produce a lymphocyte-proliferation-regulating factor. Tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids
act as antagonists. A significant normalization of lymphocyte percentage was observed in vivo although total leucocyte numbers did not change.

Title
Pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce human endothelial cells to release a lymphocyte-proliferation-regulating factor.
Author
Wurm M; Kacani L; Laus G; Keplinger K; Dierich MP
Source
Planta Med, 1998 Dec, 64:8, 701-4
Abstract
In the present study we show that pentacyclic but not tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncoria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) induced EA.hy926 endothelial cells to release
some yet to be determined factor(s) into the supernatant; this factor was shown to significantly enhance proliferation of normal human resting or weakly activated B and T lymphocytes. In contrast, proliferation of normal human lymphoblasts and of both the
human lymphoblastoid B cell line Raji and the human lymphoblastoid T cell line Jurkat was inhibited significantly while cell viability was not affected. Tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids dose-dependently reduce the activity of pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids on human endothelial
cells.

Title
Antiinflammatory actions of cat's claw: the role of NF kappaB.
Author
Sandoval Chacón M; Thompson JH; Zhang XJ; Liu X; Mannick EE; Sadowska Krowicka H; Charbonnet RM; Clark DA; Miller MJ
Source
Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 1998 Dec, 12:12, 1279-89
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Uncaria tomentosa is a vine commonly known as cat's claw or 'uña de gato' (UG) and is used in traditional Peruvian medicine for the treatment of a wide range of health problems, particularly digestive complaints and arthritis. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the proposed anti-inflammatory properties of cat's claw. Specifically: (i) does a bark extract of cat's claw protect against oxidant-induced stress in
vitro, and (ii) to determine if UG modifies transcriptionally regulated events. METHODS: Cell death was determined in two cell lines, RAW 264.7 and HT29 in response to
peroxynitrite (PN, 300 microM). Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in HT29 cells, direct effects on nitric oxide and peroxynitrite levels, and activation of NF-kappaB in RAW 264.7 cells as influenced by UG were assessed. Chronic intestinal
inflammation was induced in rats with indomethacin (7.5 mg/kg), with UG administered orally in the drinking water (5 mg/mL). RESULTS: The administration of UG (100
microg/mL) attenuated (P < 0.05) peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis in HT29 (epithelial) and RAW 264.7 cells (macrophage). Cat's claw inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS gene expression, nitrite formation, cell death and inhibited the activation of NF-kappaB. Cat's claw markedly attenuated indomethacin-enteritis as evident by reduced myeloperoxidase activity, morphometric damage and liver metallothionein expression. CONCLUSIONS: Cat's claw protects cells against oxidative stress and negated the activation of NF-kappaB. These studies provide a mechanistic evidence for the widely held belief that cat's claw is an effective anti-inflammatory agent.

 

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