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Title
Inhibition of candida valida growth by copper ions
Author
Chistiakova TI; Dedokhina EG; Eroshin VK
Source
Mikrobiologiia, 61(4):585-90 1992 Jul-Aug
Abstract
The high toxicity of copper ions for candida valida growth was established at pH-auxostat regime. The value of mu max decreased even at the residual Cu2+ concentration 1.0 mg/l. The inhibition constant (Ki) that characterized a copper ion concentration at which yeast specific growth rate was halved was equal to 7.7 mg/l. A linear dependence of 1/mu max on a residual concentration of copper ions indicates that yeast growth inhibition is due to inhibition of one enzymic reaction which is the most sensitive to copper. Yeast growth inhibition by copper was accompanied by accumulation of Cu2+ ions in biomass' a decrease in nucleic acid and true protein contents' and changes in amino acid composition of protein. The amounts of cystine and cysteine in protein increased and tryptophane content decreased with inhibition of yeast growth. Yeast growth inhibition by copper did not affect the lipid content but significantly reduced the degree of unsaturation due to a decrease in the amounts of polyunsaturated linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids.

Title
Macrophage activation by N-acetyl-cysteine in COPD patients.
Author
Vecchiarelli A; Dottorini M; Pietrella D; Cociani C; Eslami A; Todisco
T; Bistoni F
Address
Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences'
University of Perugia' Italy.
Source
Chest, 105(3):806-11 1994 Mar
Abstract
The effect of in vivo and in vitro N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment on destructive activity of macrophages against candida from COPD patients has been evaluated. Patients received NAC (600 mg) or placebo orally 3 times a day for 15 days and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and peripheral blood were collected before and at the conclusion of treatment. In our system' NAC treatment was not able to modulate antifungal activity of alveolar macrophages' peripheral blood monocytes (PBM)' and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. On the contrary' in vitro NAC treatment at appropriate doses (10 micrograms/ml) significantly enhanced antifungal activity of PBM from COPD patients. This phenomenon is mediated by augmented phagocytic activity and phagosome-lysosome fusion. The lack of correlation between in vivo and in vitro studies could be ascribed to differences in the intracellular concentration of the drug that in vivo does not reach levels capable of inducing macrophage activation. We speculate that in COPD patients who undergo long-term NAC treatment' appropriate schedules and doses of the drug could augment resistance against microbial infections which are often life-threatening in these patients.<

Title
The relationship between micronutrient depletion and oral health in
geriatrics.
Author
Sweeney MP; Bagg J; Fell GS; Yip B
Address
Victoria Geriatric Unit' University of Glasgow Dental School' Scotland.
Source
J Oral Pathol Med, 23(4):168-71 1994 Apr
Abstract
Changes in the oral microbial flora' some of which are related to mucosal disease' have been detected in the elderly' but the causes are not fully understood. This study has examined the possible role of micronutrient depletions in the reduced colonisation resistance and oral infection exhibited by some elderly subJects. The oral health' oral microbiology and micronutrient status of 37 geriatric patients aged 65-91 years (mean 81 years) were examined. Ten of the patients had no oral mucosal disease. Mucosal pathology in the remainder included erythema (27%)' denture stomatitis (24%)' angular cheilitis (16%) and atrophic glossitis (41%). Those with mucosal pathology had significantly lower serum iron concentrations (P = 0.02). Serum or plasma concentrations of zinc' copper' selenium' C-reactive protein' transferrin' caeruloplasmin' albumin' vitamin A and vitamin E were not significantly different between those with oral disease and those with healthy mouths. Similarly' activity of the selenium-containing enzyme' red cell glutathione peroxidase' did not differ significantly between the two groups. In both groups' plasma selenium concentrations (82%)' red cell glutathione peroxidase activity (47%)' plasma zinc concentrations (58%) and albumin concentrations (44%) tended to be below the lower limit of the reference interval. The influence of subclinical infection on these values is discussed.

Title
Susceptibility of mice to bacterial and fungal infections after
intragastric administration of ebselen.
Author
Nozawa R; Arai M; Kuruto R; Motohashi T; Masayasu H
Address
Laboratory of Microbiology' University of Shizuoka School of Food and Nutritional Sciences' Shizuoka-shi' Japan.
Source
J Pharm Pharmacol, 48(1):64-7 1996 Jan
Abstract
The seleno-organic compound ebselen (2-phenyl-1'2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) has anti-inflammatory activity and exhibits glutathione peroxidase-like activity in-vitro. Ebselen inhibited candidacidal activity over the same range of concentrations as it inhibited the production of microbicidal H2O2 by human neutrophils and macrophage-like cells. Therefore' the long-term administration of ebselen might be expected to induce an immunocompromised state in the host. To examine such a possibility' mice (5-weeks-old ddY' male) were given daily intragastric doses of 0' 10 or 100 mg/kg-1 ebselen for 21 days and then infected intraperitoneally with candida albicans (10(8) cells/mouse)' Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.5 x 10(7) cells/mouse) or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (5 x 10(8) cells/mouse). Ebselen at none of the tested doses affected the increase in body weight of mice during administration of the drug. No evidence was obtained that mice became more susceptible to the various microorganisms after the administration of ebselen at any tested dose.

Title
Effect of experimental selenium deficiency and its supplementation on the candidacidal activity of neutrophils in albino rats.
Author
KukreJa R; Khan A
Address
Department of Biochemistry' Nagpur University.
Source
Indian J Biochem Biophys, 31(5):427-9 1994 Oct
Abstract
The role of selenium in the diet of rats has been examined with respect to the neutrophil functions. Feeding of Se-deficient diet for 75 days resulted in reduction in candidacidal activity' superoxide production' oxygen consumption' glucose utilisation and glutathione peroxidase activity. Supplementing the diet with Se for 30 days resulted in partial restoration of all the activities.

 

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